The meaning of cargo transportation insurance and its six de
Worldwide, cargo transportation insurance originated from marine insurance and is one of the oldest types of insurance. Cargo transportation insurance refers to the insurance that the goods in the process of transportation are used as insurance targets, and the insurer suffers losses due to natural disasters or accidents. Whether it is foreign trade or trade, the goods must pass through the corresponding transportation process from the producer to the consumer. Insuring cargo transportation insurance for goods has become an important part of trade, especially international trade. Providing insurance for losses caused by various natural disasters or accidents that may be suffered during the transportation of goods can not only protect the economic interests of the shippers, but also facilitate the normal development of commodity trading and transportation. The characteristics of cargo transportation insurance are mainly reflected in six aspects of its object of protection, subject matter, risk, insurance contract change, insurance period and insurance relationship. 1. The object of guarantee for cargo transportation insurance is variability The variability of the object of guarantee for cargo transportation insurance mainly refers to the variability of the insured. The purpose of buying and selling goods in trade activities is not only to realize the value of their use, but more importantly to realize the value of goods or the value-added of goods. This determines that the goods frequently change hands during transportation and constantly change their owners, which will inevitably cause goods. Transportation insurance is constantly changing by the insured. 2. The subject matter of cargo transportation insurance is liquid. Cargo transportation insurance is goods in the middle of flow or in motion, which is not restricted by fixed locations. Third, the risk of cargo transportation insurance is comprehensive Compared with general property insurance, the risk range of cargo transportation insurance far exceeds the risk range of general property insurance. From the nature point of view, there are risks of property and interests, as well as risks of responsibility; from the scope of view, there are both maritime risks and land and air risks; from the perspective of risk types, there are both natural disasters and The objective risks caused by accidents and the subjective risks caused by external causes; from the formal point of view, there are both risks in the static state and risks in the flow state. 4. The change of insurance contract for cargo transportation insurance is free. The risk of cargo in transit and the probability of risk are mainly determined by the carrier rather than the insured. Therefore, the insurance contract for cargo transportation insurance can be related to the ownership of the goods. Transfer and free transfer without prior consent from the insurer. Thus, in practice the insurance contract for cargo transportation insurance is often treated as an attachment to the bill of lading, which is transferred as the bill of lading is transferred. V. The insurance period of cargo transportation insurance is spatial. Because the transportation route of goods with different means of transport is not fixed, the insurance period of cargo transportation insurance is usually not a one-year fixed-term system, but an agreed transportation route. The entire transportation process from the origin warehouse to the destination warehouse is expected to be an insurance liability period. This feature makes the insurance period of cargo transportation insurance have spatial characteristics. Therefore, the “warehouse-to-warehouse clause” is the main basis for determining the insurance liability period of cargo transportation insurance. VI. Internationality of Cargo Transportation Insurance The international nature of cargo transportation insurance is mainly manifested in the geographical coverage of the country beyond the national and regional boundaries. The insurance related persons involved in international transport cargo insurance are not only citizens of the country, but also traders, carriers, financial institutions and cargo owners in different countries and regions. Therefore, the prevention and resolution of disputes that may arise from insurance must be relied upon. In international regulations and international practices. According to different standards, we can classify cargo transportation insurance into different categories. According to different means of transportation and transportation, it can be divided into water transportation insurance, land transportation insurance, air transportation insurance, postal insurance, and intermodal transportation; according to the scope of application, it can be divided into cargo transportation insurance and marine cargo transportation insurance; The responsibility of the marine cargo transportation can be divided into insurance, WPA and all risks. Only cargo transportation insurance is introduced here.